Introduction: Prakriti is an important basic concept of Ayurveda that describes the constitution of an individual in relation to one\'s physical, physiological, psychological, and behavioral characters and is an integral constituent of Ayurvedic diagnosis, treatment, and disease prognosis. The description for Prakriti assessment in Ayurvedic classics is mostly subjective and the translations and interpretations made on the subject are grossly dissimilar.
Objective: The work of development of a Prakriti Assessment Scale with reliability, rationality, validity, and reproducibility for universal acceptance has been undertaken by the Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), New Delhi, India, an apex organization for research in Ayurveda.
Materials and methods: The designing of the Prakriti Assessment Scale has been done following Ayurvedic classics and consulting various subject experts in the following steps, viz.: (i) Development of a comprehensive questionnaire for assessment of Prakriti, (ii) development of a user manual containing standard operating procedures (SOPs) for capturing predictors, (iii) double-blinded validation of the questionnaire to see interrater agreement.
Results: The Prakriti Assessment Scale has been designed based on standard classical texts of Ayurveda through various consultative expert group meets. The Scale captures various predictors/determinants for Prakriti assessment with the maximum possible rationality and objectivity. Further, this Scale has been subjected to clinical validation at 10 centers (n = 500) across the country. It may undergo further reductions and refinement to make it more comprehensive for clinical use.
Conclusion: A comprehensive Prakriti Assessment Scale based on Ayurvedic texts has been developed and subjected to clinical validation.
Agnivesha Charaka Samhita. Revised by Charaka and Dridhabala, Vidyotini Hindi commentary by Pandit Kashi Nath Shastri, Chaturvedi Gorakh Nath. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Vidya Bhawan; 1969. p. 165.
Rotti H, Raval R, Anchan S, Bellampalli R, Bhale S, Bharadwaj R, Bhat BK, Dedge AP, Dhumal VR, Gangadharan GG, et al. Determinants of Prakriti, the human constitution types of Indian traditional medicine and its correlation with contemporary science. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2014 Jul;5(3): 167-175.
Rotti H, Guruprasad KP, Nayak J, Kabekkodu SP, Kukreja H, Mallya S, Nayak J, Bhradwaj RC, Gangadharan GG, Prasanna BV, et al. Immunophenotyping of normal individuals classified on the basis of human dosha Prakriti. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2014 Jan;5(1):43-49.
Rotti H, Mallya S, Kabekkodu SP, Chakrabarty S, Bhale S, Bharadwaj R, Bhat BK, Dedge AP, Dhumal VR, Gangadharan GG, et al. DNA methylation analysis of phenotype specific stratified Indian population. J Transl Med 2015 May;13:151.
Juyal RC, Negi S, Wakhode P, Bhat S, Bhat B, Thelma BK . Potential of ayurgenomics approach in complex trait research: leads from a pilot study on rheumatoid arthritis. Plos One 2012 Sep;7(9):1-8.
Prasher B, Varma B, Kumar A, Khuntia BK, Pandey R, Narang A, Tiwari P, Kutum R, Guin D, Kukreti R, et al. Ayurgenomics for stratified medicine: TRISUTRA consortium initiative across ethnically and geographically diverse Indian populations. J Ethnopharmacol 2017 Feb;197:274-293.
Prasher B, Negi S, Aggarwal S, Mandal AK, Sethi TP, Deshmukh SR, Purohit SG, Sengupta S, Khanna S, Mohammad F, et al. Whole genome expression and biochemical correlates of extreme constitutional types defined in Ayurveda. J Transl Med 2008 Sep;6:48.
Bhalerao S, Deshpande T, Thatte U. Prakriti (Ayurvedic concept of constitution) and variations in platelet aggregation. BioMed Central Complement Altern Med 2012 Dec;12: 1-5.
Ramakrishna BR, Kishore KR, Vaidya V, Nagaratna R. Nagendra HR. A Survey on the need for developing an Ayurveda based Personality (Tridoshaprakrti) Inventory. J Ayurveda Holistic Med 2014 Aug;2(7):8-13.
Purvya MC, Meena M S. A review on role of Prakriti in aging. Ayu 2011 Jan-Mar; 32(1):20-24.
Prasuna VVL, Bandari S. Clinical assessment of hypothyroid symptoms in different types of Prakriti. Int J Ayurveda Pharma Res 2013 Oct;1(2):17-23.
Purandare V R, Prasad N B. Correlation between ABO Blood Groups and Tridoshas (Ayurvedic Biological Constituents). Int J Ayurvedic Herbal Med 2013 Jan;3(1):1053-1056.
Rastogi S, Chiappelli F. Development and validation of a Prototype Prakriti Analysis Tool (PPAT): inferences from a pilot study. Ayu 2012 Apr-Jun;33(2):209-218.
Singhal GD. Ayurvedic clinical diagnosis based on Madhava Nidana. Delhi: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan, Part-II;
Bhavamishra. Bhavaprakash Nighantu (Hindi Commentary) by Shastri Brahmashankara, Vaishya Rupalalji. Varanasi: Chaukhumbha Sanskrit Bhawan, Vol. I. 9th edn.; 1999. p. 959.
Upadhyay BN. Studies on role of Commiphora mukul (Gugullu) in management of IHD. PhD Thesis, Department of Kayachikitsa, Varanasi: IMS BHU; 1979.
Tripathi SN, Kishore P, Dwivedi LD, Gupta M. Studies on guggulu. Delhi: Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. 1989.
Kumri K, Augusti KT. Lipid lowering effect of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide from Allium cepa Linn in high cholesterol diet fed rats. J Ethanopharmacol 2007 Feb;109(3):367-371.
Kaul S, Kappor NK. Reversal of change of lipid peroxide, xanthide oxidase and superoxidase dismutase by cardioprotective drugs in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1989 Jul;27(7):625-627.
Maruthappan V, Shree KS. Hypolipidemic activity of haritaki (terminalia chebula) in atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2010 Apr;1(2):229-235.
Rathore HS, Soni S, Bhatnagar D. Hypocholesterolemic effect of Terminalia chebula fruit (Myrobalan) in mice. Anc Sci Life 2004 Apr-Jun;23(4):11-15.
Shah SS, Shah GB, Singh SD, Gohil PV, Chauhan K, Shah KA, Chorawala M. Effect of piperine in the regulation of obesityinduced dyslipidemia in high-fat diet rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2011 May;43(3):296-299.
Parim B, Harishankar N, Balaji M, Pothana S, Sajjalaguddam RR. Effects of Piper nigrum extracts: restorative perspectives of high-fat diet-induced changes on lipid profile, body composition, and hormones in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pharm Biol 2015;53(9):1318-1328.
Wang J, Ke W, Bao R, Hu X, Chen F. Beneficial effects of ginger Zingiber officinale Roscoe on obesity and metabolic syndrome: a review. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2017 Jun;1398(1): 83-98.
Ebrahimzadeh Attari V, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Zemestani M, Ostadrahimi A. Effect of Zingiber officinale supplementation on obesity management with respect to the uncoupling protein 1-3826A>G and ß3-adrenergic receptor Trp64Arg polymorphism. Phytother Res 2015 Apr;29(7):1032-1039.
Han LK, Gong XJ, Kawano S, Saito M, Kimura Y, Okuda H. Antiobesity actions of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Yakugaku Zasshi 2005 Feb;125(2):213-217.
Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part I/Part A, 18:14. p. 624-630.
Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part I/Part A, 18:01. p. 591-597.
Mahima, Rahal A, Deb R, Latheef SK, Samad HA, Tiwari R, Verma AK, Kumar A, Dhama K. Immunomodulatory and therapeutic potentials of herbal, traditional/indigenous and ethanoveterinary medicines. Pak J Biol Sci 2012 Aug;15(16):754-774.
NISCAIR. Medicinal and aromatic plants abstracts 2003 Apr;25(2). 2003-02-0921.
Sharma AK, Sharma RS, Mohite K. Management of Sandhi- gata vata (OA) with Shamana and Shodhana therapy - a pilot study. J Res Ayurveda Siddha CCRAS 2003;24(1-2).
Arora PK, Tiwari SL. Comparative study of Therapeutic efficacy of Samshodhana and Samshamnachikitsa in Sandhi- gatavata vis-à-vis osteoarthritis. J Res Ayurveda Siddha CCRAS 2003;24(1-2).
Sumantran VN, Chandwaskar R, Joshi AK, Boddul S, Patwardhan B, Chopra A, Wagh UV. The relationship between chondroprotective and antiinflammatory effects of Withania somnifera root and glucosamine sulphate on human osteoarthritic cartilage in vitro. Phytother Res 2008 Oct;22(10):1342-1348.
Report on pharmacological profile and safety of Yograj Guggulu and Mahanarayana taila (Classical formulations). Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, Depart- ment of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, GOI; 2014.
Theiler R, Sangha O, Schaeren S, Michel BA, Tyndall A, Dick W, Stucki G. Superior responsiveness of the pain and function sections of the Western Ontario and McMaster Uni- versities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) as compared to the lequesene - Algofunctional Index in patients with osteoarthri- tis of the lower extremities. Osteoarth Cart 1999;7(6);515-519.
Rajadhyaksha A. Open study to evaluate the efficacy of Salaki as an add-on therapy along with NSAID in the management of patients with osteoarthritis, Select research papers on evidence based research drugs, CCRAS; 2000.
Averbuch M, Katzper M. Assessment of visual analog versus categorical scale for measurement of osteoarthritis pain. J Clin Pharmacol 2004 Apr;44(4):368-372.
Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2011.
Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2012.
Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2013.
Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2014.
Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, New Delhi, 2015.
Annual Report, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, New Delhi, 2016.
Tribal pockets of Nilgiris. Recordings of the field study of medicinal Flora and Health Practices, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1976.
Preliminary Techno Economical Survey of Natural Resources and Herbal Wealth of Ladakh, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1976.
Medico-Botanical Exploration of Phulbani and Koraput Districts of Orissa, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Department of ISM&H, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1996.
Medico-Botanical Exploration of Puri District (Orissa), Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1989.
Contribution to the Medico-Botany of East Godavari and West Godavari Districts of Andhra Pradesh, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1989.
Glimpses of Medico-Botany of Bastar District (M.P.), Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1990.
Medico-Ethno-botany of Sonebhadra District, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1993.
Health Related Demography of the Tribes of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2010.
Medico Botanical exploration of Sikkim Himalayans, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1991.
Medico Botanical exploration of Uttarakhand, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1977.
A Report on Medicinal plants of Kachchh (Gujarat), Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Department of ISM&H, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1998.
Observations on Medico-Botany of Andaman Nicobar Islands, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 1988.
Medico-Botany of Andaman & Nicobar: Recent Study, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, New Delhi, 2016.
Herbal wealth of Uttarakhand, Vol I, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, New Delhi, 2014.
Herbal wealth of Uttarakhand, Vol II, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, New Delhi, 2015.
Healing herbs of Himalaya, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha (CCRAS), Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, 2008.
Herbal wealth of Western Ghats-Agasthyamalai, Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, New Delhi, 2016.
Kalender ME, Comez G, Sevinc A, Dirier A, Camci C. Leech therapy for symptomatic relief of cancer pain. Pain Med 2010 Mar;11(3):443-445.
Rathi R, Rathi B. A case report of acute lymphoblastic leukemia – an ayurvedic approach. Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci 2014 Feb;3(3):48-51.
Shukla S, Bharti AC, Hussain S, Mahata S, Hedau S, Kailash U, Kashyap V, Bhambhani S, Roy M, Batra S, et al. Elimination of high-risk human papillomavirus type HPV16 infection by 'Praneem' polyherbal tablet in women with early cervical intraepithelial lesions. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2009 Dec;135(12):1701-1709.
Talwar GP, Sharma R, Singh S, Das BC, Bharti AC, Sharma K, Singh P, Atrey N, Gupta JC. BASANT, a polyherbal safe microbicide eliminates HPV-16 in women with early cervical intraepithelial lesions. J Cancer Ther 2015 Dec;6(14):1163-1166.
Joshi JV, Paradkar PH, Jagtap SS, Agashe SV, Soman G, Vaidya AB. Chemopreventive potential and safety profile of a curcuma longa extract in women with cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2011 12(12):3305-3311.
Deshpande A, Tandon S, Deshpande N. Low resource screening method of precancerous lesions and its reversal by Triphala in teenage Indian population. Ayu 2014 Apr- Jun;35(2):160-167.
Srivastava A, Agarwal R, Chaturvedi TP, Chandra A, Singh OP. Clinical evaluation of the role of tulsi and turmeric in the management of oral submucous fibrosis: A pilot, prospective observational study. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2015 Jan-Mar;6(1):45-49.
Patel KR, Rajagopala M, Vaghela DB, Shah A. A pilot study on Ayurvedic management of oral sub mucous fibrosis. Ayu 2015 Nov;36(1):34-40.
Gutknecht N, et al. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop of Evidence Based Dentistry on Lasers in Dentistry. Quintessence Publishing Co. Ltd. 2007.
Ishii J, Fujita K, Komori T. Laser surgery as a treatment for oral leukoplakia. Oral Oncol 2003;39(8):759-69.
Katzir A. Lasers and optical fibers in medicine. Academic Press, Inc, San Diego-Boston 1993.
Nathan MI, Dumke WP, Burns G, Dill Jr FH, Lasher G. Stimulated emission of radiation from GaAs p-n junctions. Appl Phys Lett 1962;1(3):62-64.
Prahl SA. Optical absorption of hemoglobin. Oregon Medical Laser Center: http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/ index.html
Strassl M, Kassenbacher A, Wintner E. Ultrashort laser pulses in dentistry. J Oral Laser Appl 2002;2(4):213-22.
Stabholz A, Zeltzser R, Sela M, Peretz B, Moshonov J, Ziskind D. The use of lasers in dentistry: Principles of operation and clinical applications. Compend 2003;24:811-24.
Kreisler M, Daublander M, Willershausen-Zonnchen B, d‘Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on the survival rate of gingival fibroblast cell cultures. Laser Surg Med 2001a;28(5):445-50.
Rastegar S, Jacques SL, Motamedi M, Kim BM. Theoretical analysis of equivalency of high- power diode laser and Nd:YAG laser for coagulation. Lasers in Dentistry, SPIE 1646:150-60, 1992.
Theodoro LH, Haypek P, Bachmann L, Garcia VG, Sampaio JE, Zezell DM, Eduardo C de P. Effect of Er:YAG and diode laser irradiation on the root surface: Morphological and thermal analysis. J Periodontol 2003;74(6):838-43.
White JM, Gekelman D, Shin K, Park X, Swenson T, Rouse B, Tran K, Bullard S, Scott- Beckles B, Oto MJSB, Yamamoto A. Laser interaction with dental soft tissues: What do we know from our years of applied scientific research? Lasers in Dentistry, SPIE 2002;4610:39-48.
Adams TC, Pang PK. Lasers in Aesthetic Dentistry. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48:833-60.
Bach G, Neckel C, Mall C, Krekeler G. Conventional versus laser- assisted therapy of peri-implantitis: A five year comparative study. Implant Dent 2000;9:247-51.
Clayman L, Kuo PC. Soft tissue excision techniques. In Clayman L, Kuo P. Lasers in Maxillofacial Surgery and Dentistry. Thieme Publ, Stuttgart 1997;63-83.
Convissar RA, Diamond LB, Fazekas CD. Laser treatment of orthodontically induced gingival hyperplasia. Gen Dent 1996;44(1):47-51.
Goharkay K, Moritz A, Wilder-Smith P, Schoop U, Kluger W, Jakolitsch S, Sperr W. Effects on oral soft tissue produced by a diode laser in vitro. J Oral Surg 1978;36:932-37.
Olbricht SM, Stern RS, Tang SV, Noe JM, Arndt KA. Complications of cutaneous laser surgery: A survey. Arch Dermatol 1987;123(3):345-49.
Pinheiro AL, Limeira Jr FA, Gerbi MEM, Ramalho LMP. Effect of 830 nm laser light on the repair of bone defects grafted with inorganic bovine bone and decalciûed cortical osseous membrane. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2003;21(6):383-88.
Romanos GE. Atlas der chirurgischen Laserzahnheilkunde. Urban und Fischer Verlag, München 1999.
Romanos GE, Nentwig GH. Present and future of lasers in oral soft tissue surgery: Clinical applications. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1996;14(4):179-84.
Strauss RA. Laser management of discrete lesions. In : Laser applications in oral maxillofacial surgery. (Eds) Catone G A, Alling C C, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1997
White JM, Goodis HE, Horton J, Gold S. Current status of lasers in soft tissue dental surgery. J Periodontol 1994;65(7):733-35.
Yousuf A, Hossain M, Nakamura Y, Yamada Y, Kinoshita J, Matsumoto K. Removal of gingival melanin pigmentation with the semiconductor diode laser: A case report. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2000;18:263-66.
Zeinoun T, Nammour S, Dourov N, Aftimos G, Luomanen M. Myofibroblasts in healing laser excision wounds. Lasers Surg Med 2001;28:74-79.
Al-Watban FA, Zhang XY. The comparison of effects between pulsed and CW lasers on wound healing. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2004;22(1):15-18.
Gutknecht N, Gogswaardt D, Conrads G, Apel C, Schubert C, Lampert F. Diode laser radiation and its bactericidal effect in root canal wall dentin. J Clin Las Med Surg 2000;57:57-60.
Parkins F. Lasers in pediatric and adolescent dentistry. Dent Clin N Amer 2000;44:821-30.
Santaella MR, Braun A, Matson E, Frentzen M. Effect of diode laser and fluoride varnish on initial surface demineralisation of primary dentition enamel: An in vitro study. Int J Paed Dent 2004;14:199-203.
Tuner J, Hode L. The laser therapy handbook. Grängesberg 2004;231.
Gherlone EF, Maiorana C, Grassi RF, Ciancaglini R, Cattoni F. The use of 980 nm diode and 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser for gingival retraction in fixed prostheses. J Oral Laser Applications 2004;4:183-90.
Glauche CE, de Freitas PM, Vieira ND, Marques JL. Qualitative microanalysis of ions and ultrastructuralchanges in dentin exposed to laser irradiation. Lasers Surg Med 2005;36(4): 334-39.
Gutknecht N, Zimmermann R, Lampert F. Lasers in periodontology: State of the art. J Oral Laser Applications 2001a;1:169-79.
Kreisler M, Haj HA, d‘Hoedt B. Clinical efficacy of semiconductor laser application as an adjunct to conventional scaling and root planning. Lasers Surg Med 2005;37:350-55.
Mester E, Spiry T, Szende B, Tota JG. Effect of laser rays on wound healing. Am J Surg 1971;22:532-35.
Patruta S, Franz A, Beer F, Goharkhay K, Sperr W, Moritz A. In vitro stimulatory effect of diode laser on the secretion of tissue inhibitor of matrix mealloproteinases 1(TIMP-1) in human gingival fibroblast: A preliminary report. J Oral Laser Applications 2004;4(3):167-70.
Silveira LB, Silveira JB, Ribeiro MS, Garrocho AA, Novelli MD, Marigo H, Growth EB, et al. In vivo study on mast cells behavior following low intensity visible and near infrared laser radiation (abstract 304). Lasers Surg Med 2002;82.
Bach G, Koch HK, Hellerich U, Venzke T. Konventionelle Diodenlaser versus Hochpulstechnik. Laser Journal 1/2008:18-20.
Deppe H, Horch HH. Laseranwendungen in der chirurgischen Zahn-,Mund-und Kieferheilkunde. Laser Zahnheilkunde 2007;4:219-22.
Horch HH, Deppe H. Laser anwendungen im Mund-Kiefer- Gesichtsbereich. In Horch HH: Mund-Kiefer-Gesichtschirurgie. München: Elsevier 2007;797-820.
Roodenburg JL, Witjes MJ, deVeld DC; Tan IB, Nauta JM: Lasers in dentistry. Use of lasers in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 2002;109:470.
Maiorana C, Salina S. Oral soft tissue pathologies: Long-term evaluation after laser treatment. J Oral Laser Appl 2001;1:20.
Crippa R. Report on 103 cases of precancerous and other oral lesions treated with a diode laser. J Oral Laser Appl 2001;1:26.
Bach G. Er:YAG versus Diode-Zwei Wellenlängen made in Baden-Württemberg. Laser Zahnheilkunde 2007;4:283-87.
Andersen K. Laser technology- a surgical tool of the past, present and future. Aorn J 2003;78:794-802.
Eichler J, Schneeweiss-Wolter C. Wirkung von Laserstrahlung auf Gewebe. MTA 1999;14:255.
McKenzie AL. Physics of thermal processes in laser- tissue interaction. Phys Med Biol 1990;35:1175-209.
Sullins KE. Diode laser and endoscopic laser surgery. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2002;32:639-648.
Svaasand LO, Boerslid T, Oeveraasen M. Thermal and optical properties of living tissue: Application to laser-induced hyperthermia. Lasers Surg Med 1985;5:589-602.
Welch AJ, Motamedi M, Rastegar S, LeCarpentier GL, Jansen D. Laser thermal ablation. Photochem. Photobiol 1991;53: 815-23.
Lippert BM, et al. Wound healing after laser treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Lasers Med Sci. 2003;18(1):36-42.
Grossenbacher R. Laser surgery in the oral cavity. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1992;10(1):19-21.
Guttenberg SA, Emery RW. Laser resurfacing and oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Dermatol. Surg 1999;25(6):519.
Coleton S. Laser treatment of atypical oral pigmentation. A case report. NY State Dent J 2006;72(2):22-23.
Damante CA, et al. Histomorphometric study of the healing of human oral mucosa after gingivoplasty and low-level laser therapy. Lasers Surg Med 2004;35(5):377-84.
Eichler J, Eichler HJ. Laser. Springer Verlag, Berlin- Heidelberg- New York 1991.
Manni J. Surgical diode lasers. J Clin Laser Med Surg 1992;10: 377-80.
Pick RM, Powel GL. Lasers in dentistry, soft tissue procedures. Dent Clin North Am 1993;37:281-97.
Scherer H, Fuhere A, Hopf J. Current status of laser surgery of benign diseases in the area of soft palate. Laryngol Rhinol Otol 1994;73:14-18.
Morita T, Okamura Y, Ookub K, et al. A new instrument for hemostatic vascular management in endoscopic surgery: Diode laser(STATLaser-SDL) and it‘s hand piece (Dual Hook). J Clin Laser Med Surg 1999;17:57-61.
Claus PN. Comparative study on CW mode versus pulsed mode in AlGaAs diode lasers. SPIE Proc 2001;4249:44-49.
Krause F, Frentzen M. Dioden- Laser in der zahnmedizinischen Anwendung. DGL Zeitschrift für Laserzahnheilkunde 2007;3/ 07:151-58.
Coluzzi DJ. Lasers and soft tissue curettage: An update. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2002;23:1104-111.
Schwarz F, Sculean A, Berakdar M, Szathmari L, Geoerg T, Becker J. In vivo and in vitro effects of an Er:YAG laser, a diode laser, and scaling and root-planning on periodontally diseased root surfaces: A comparative histologic study. Lasers Surg Med 2003;32:359-66.
Fontana CR, Kurachi C, Mendonca CR, Bagnato VS. Temperature variation at soft periodontal and rat bone tissue during a medium- power diode laser exposure. Photomed Lasres Surg 2004;22:519-22.
Borrajo JL, Varela LG, Castro LG, Rodriguez-Nunez I, Torreira MG: Diode laser (980 nm) as an adjunct to scaling and root planning. Photomed Laser Surg 2004;22:509-12.
Kreisler M, Al Haj H, Daublander M, Gotz H, Duschner H, Willershausen B, D‘Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on root surface in vitro. J Clin Laser Med Surg 2002;20:63-69.
Meister J, Franzen R. Dentale Lasersysteme Teil II: Der Dioden- Laser. DGL Zeitschrift für Laserzahnheilkunde 2007;3/07: 185-89.
Alam T, Dawasaz AA, Thukral N, Jangam D. Surgical diode laser excision for peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma: A case report and literature review. J Oral Laser Applications 2008;8:43- 49.
Convissar RA. An overview of laser wavelength used in dentistry. Dent Clin North Am 2000;44:753-765.
Kreisler M, Meier C, Stender E, Daubländer M, Willershausen- Zönnchen B, de Hoedt B. Effect of diode laser irradiation on the attachment rate of periodontal ligament cells: An in vitro study. J Periodontol Oct 2001;72(10):1312-17.
Black P. Der Dentallaser in der oralen Chirurgie-Masterthese- Teil2 Laser Journal 1/2007: 16-21, 2007 146. Van Hillegersberg R: Fundamentals of Laser Surgery Eur J Surg Jan 1997;163(1): 3-12.
Haina D, Landthaler M, Braun-Falco O, Waidelich W. Comparison of the maximum coagulation depth in human skin for different types of medical lasers. Lasers Surg Med 1987;7(4): 355-62.
Sullins KE. Diode laser and endoscopic laser surgery. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract May 2002;32(3):639-48.
McKenzie AL. Physics of thermal processes in laser-tissue interaction. Phys Med Biol Sep 1990;35(9):1175-209.
Reinisch L. Laser physics and tissue interaction. Otolaryngol Clin North Am Dec 1996;29(6):893-914.
Coluzzi DJ. Fundamentals of dental lasers: Science and instruments. Dent Clin North Am 2004;48:751-70.
Maiorana C, Salina S. Versatility of superpulsed diode laser in oral surgery: A clinical report. J Oral Laser Appl 2006;6: 193-99.