Journal of Research in Ayurvedic Sciences

Register      Login

VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 4 ( October-December, 2019 ) > List of Articles


Efficacy of Ayurvedic Interventions in Hypothyroidism: A Comprehensive Review

Amit K Dixit, Mrinmoy Sarkar, Lalrin Puia, Manajit Bora, Sudesh N Gaidhani, Jayram Hazra

Keywords : Ayurveda, Hormone, Hypothyroidism, Medicinal plants, Metabolism

Citation Information : Dixit AK, Sarkar M, Puia L, Bora M, Gaidhani SN, Hazra J. Efficacy of Ayurvedic Interventions in Hypothyroidism: A Comprehensive Review. J Res Ayurvedic Sci 2019; 3 (4):157-163.

DOI: 10.5005/jras-10064-0090

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 00-12-2019

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2019; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.


Thyroid disorders have been one among the most challenging and most common endocrine disorders that we confront worldwide. Major thyroid disorders include hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, goiter/iodine deficiency, Hashimoto\'s thyroiditis, and thyroid cancer. Among these, hypothyroidism is arguably the most challenging as its multifarious clinical presentation often goes unnoticed. Hypothyroidism can be attributed to the deficiency of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), in the body. Mild or subclinical hypothyroidism refers to the condition where peripheral thyroid hormone levels are within normal range, but serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels are mildly elevated. Data to date are scarce that include direct experimental, pharmacological, or preclinical types of evidence of treating hypothyroidism with Ayurvedic and herbal drugs. The scope of this manuscript covers the utility of conventional Ayurveda or herbal drugs in ameliorating the pathophysiological symptoms of hypothyroidism. Treatment strategies have been evolving since the early and mid-twentieth century, starting from using the whole thyroid extract to the modern-day thyroxine monotherapy by L-thyroxine. Despite these advances, there remains a considerably large population who endure the symptoms of hypothyroidism. Various assortments of formulations are available for such conditions in Ayurveda system of medicine since the very early days of civilization. In Ayurveda, though there are not any direct reference of thyroid, Galaganda and Gandamala, which possess symptomatic similarities with thyroid disorders, have been mentioned frequently in the texts. With the present data available, it is concluded that natural resources around can be utilized for the prevention and amelioration of hypothyroidism in mammals.

PDF Share
  1. Jonklaas J, Bianco AC, Bauer AJ, et al. Guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism: prepared by the american thyroid association task force on thyroid hormone replacement. Thyroid 2014;24(12):1670–1751. DOI: 10.1089/thy.2014.0028.
  2. Wiersinga WM, Duntas L, Fadeyev V, et al. ETA guidelines: the use of L-T4 + L-T3 in the treatment of hypothyroidism. Eur Thyroid J 2012;1(2):55–71. DOI: 10.1159/000339444.
  3. Gullo D, Latina A, Frasca F, et al. Levothyroxine monotherapy cannot guarantee euthyroidism in all athyreotic patients. PLoS ONE 2011;6(8):e22552. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022552.
  4. Saravanan P, Chau WF, Roberts N, et al. Psychological well-being in patients on ‘adequate’ doses of l-thyroxine: results of a large, controlled community-based questionnaire study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2002;57(5):577–585. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2265.2002.01654.x.
  5. Abdalla SM, Bianco AC. Defending plasma T3 is a biological priority. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2014;81(5):633–641. DOI: 10.1111/cen.12538.
  6. Bunevičius R, Kažanavičius G, Žalinkevičius R, et al. Effects of thyroxine as compared with thyroxine plus triiodothyronine in patients with hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med 1999;340(6):424–429. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199902113400603.
  7. Panicker V, Saravanan P, Vaidya B, et al. Common variation in the DIO2 gene predicts baseline psychological well-being and response to combination thyroxine plus triiodothyronine therapy in hypothyroid patients. J Clin Endocr Metab 2009;94(5):1623–1629. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2008-1301.
  8. Subhose V, Srinivas P, Narayana A. Basic principles of pharmaceutical science in ayurveda. Bull Indian Inst Hist Med 2005;35(2):83–92.
  9. Hwang J, Jung H, Kang S, et al. Therapeutic effects of acupuncture with MOK, a polyherbal medicine, on PTU-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Exp Ther Med 2018;16(1):310–320. DOI: 10.3892/etm.2018.6190.
  10. Jena S, Anand C, Chainy GBN, et al. Induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of superoxide dismutase expression in rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum by PTU-induced hypothyroidism and its reversal by curcumin. Neurol Sci 2012;33(4):869–873. DOI: 10.1007/s10072-011-0853-4.
  11. Parmar HS, Kar A. Protective role of Mangifera indica, Cucumis melo and Citrullus vulgaris peel extracts in chemically induced hypothyroidism. Chem Biol Interact 2009;177(3):254–258. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2008.11.006.
  12. Kaur A, Khurana N, Verma SK. Potential thyrotropic and antihypercholesteronemic activity exhibited by ethanolic extract of crataeva nurvala bark. J Applied Pharma Sci 2017;7(11):69–73.
  13. Panda S, Kar A. Fruit extract of emblica officinalis ameliorates hyperthyroidism and hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice. Pharmazie 2003;58(10):753–755.
  14. Ashwini S, Bobby Z, Sridhar MG, et al. Insulin plant (Costus pictus) extract restores thyroid hormone levels in experimental hypothyroidism. Pharmacognosy Res 2017;9(1):51–59. DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.199766.
  15. Yadavaji Trikamji Acharya, ed. Charak Samhita of Agnivesha, Chikitsa Sthana, Ch. 12, Ver. 77, 4th ed. Bombay: Munishiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.; 1981. p. 489.
  16. Priyavat Sharma, ed. Samhita Susruta of Susruta, Nidana Sthana, Ch. 11, Ver. 22, 7th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia; 2002. p.314.
  17. Kar A, Panda S, Bharti S. Relative efficacy of three medicinal plant extracts in the alteration of thyroid hormone concentrations in male mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81(2):281–285. DOI: 10.1016/s0378-8741(02)00048-x.
  18. Beheshti F, Hosseini M, Shafei MN, et al. The effects of Nigella sativa extract on hypothyroidism-associated learning and memory impairment during neonatal and juvenile growth in rats. Nutr Neurosci 2017;20(1):49–59. DOI: 10.1179/1476830514Y.0000000144.
  19. Asiaei F, Fazel A, Rajabzadeh AA, et al. Neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa extract upon the hippocampus in PTU-induced hypothyroidism juvenile rats: a stereological study. Metab Brain Dis 2017;32(5):1755–1765. DOI: 10.1007/s11011-017-0025-1.
  20. Khalawi AA, Al-Robai AA, Khoja SM, et al. Can Nigella sativa oil (nso) reverse hypothyroid status induced by PTU in rat? Biochemical and histological studies. Life Sci J 2013;10(2):802–811.
  21. Pakdel R, Hadjzadeh H, Sadegh M, et al. The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on serum estradiol and prolactin levels and obstetric criteria due to hypothyroidism in rat. Adv Biomed Res 2017;6(1):166. DOI: 10.4103/2277-9175.221860.
  22. Abdolhosseinipoor F, Dinani MS, Sharifabad AH. The effects of FDE urticadioicahydroalcoholic extract on the propylthiouracil induced hypothyroidism in rat. J Herbmed Pharmacol 2018;7(4):300–305. DOI: 10.15171/jhp.2018.45.
  23. Jena S, Chainy GB, Dandapat J. Expression of antioxidant genes in renal cortex of PTU-induced hypothyroid rats: effect of vitamin E and curcumin. Mol Biol Rep 2012;39(2):1193–1203. DOI: 10.1007/s11033-011-0849-4.
  24. Mogulkoc R, Baltaci A, Aydin L, et al. The effect of thyroxine administration on lipid peroxidation in different tissues of rats with hypothyroidism. Acta Physiol Hung 2005;92(1):39–46. DOI: 10.1556/APhysiol.92.2005.1.6.
  25. Subudhi U, Das K, Paital B, et al. Supplementation of curcumin and vitamin E enhances oxidative stress, but restores hepatic histoarchitecture in hypothyroid rats. Life Sci 2009;84(11-12):372–379. DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2008.12.024.
  26. Remya R, Daniel M. Phytochemical and pharmacognostic investigation of anti-diabetic Costus pictus D. don. Int J Pharm Bio Med Res 2013;3(1):30–39.
  27. Sulakshana G, Sabitha Rani A. Standardization of micropropagation form nodal segments of C. pictus an anti-diabetic plant. Int J Current Research 2016;8(8):36680–36684.
  28. Reddy LJ, Jose B. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of the leaf essential oil Costus pictus D.don from South India. Int J of Cur Pharm Res 2010;2(3):68–70.
  29. Sardessai Y, Angle GP, Joshi A, et al. Anti-bacterial activity of methanolic extract of the rhizome of Costus igneus. 2014;2(3): 176–185.
  30. Dhanasekaran S, Akshaya M, Preethi S. In-vitro antiproliferative potential of leaves of Costus igneus. Int J Innov Engng Tech 2014;4(4):277–283.
  31. Prejeena V, Suresh SN, Varsha V. Phytochemical screening, anti-oxidant analysis and anti-proliferative effect of Costus pictus. D. don leaf extracts. Int J Recent Adv Multi-Discip Res 2017;4(3):2373–2378.
  32. Jayasri MA, Mathew L, Radha A. A report on the antioxidant activity of leaves and rhizome of Costus pictus D. don. Int J Integre Biol 2008;5(1):20–26.
  33. Jatwa R, Kar A. Amelioration of metformin-induced hypothyroidism by Withania somnifera and Bauhinia purpurea extracts in type 2 diabetic mice. Phytother Res 2009;23(8):1140–1145. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2765.
  34. Sharma AK, Basu I, Singh S. Efficacy and safety of ashwagandha root extract in subclinical hypothyroid patients: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med 2018;24(3):243–248. DOI: 10.1089/acm.2017.0183.
  35. Kar A, Panda S. Ayurvedic therapies for thyroid dysfunction. In: Mishra L. Scientific Basis of Ayurvedic Therapies, ch. 8, USA: CRC Press; 2004.
  36. Veena K, et al. Effect of indigenous drugs on experimentally produced goiter. J Res Ind Med 1975;10:19.
  37. Panda S, Kar A. Gugulu (Commiphora mukul) induces triiodothyronine production: possible involvement of lipid peroxidation. Life Sci 1999;65(12):PL137–PL141. DOI: 10.1016/s0024-3205(99)00369-0.
  38. Singh AK, Tripathi SN, Prasad GC. Response of Commiphora mukul (guggulu) on melatonin induced hypothyroidism. Anc Sci Life 1983;3(2):85–90.
  39. Tahiliani P, Kar A. Achyranthes aspera elevates thyroid hormone levels and decreases hepatic lipid peroxidation in male rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;71(3):527–532. DOI: 10.1016/s0378-8741(00)00170-7.
  40. Chaturvedi P, Tripathi P, Pandey S, et al. Effect of Saussurea lappa alcoholic extract on different endocrine glands in relation to glucose metabolism in the rat. Phyto Res 1993;7(2):205–207. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2650070224.
  41. Tripathi YB, Chaturvedi P. Assessment of endocrine response of Inula racemosa in relation to glucose homeostasis in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1995;33(9):686–689.
  42. Tabassum W, Kullu AR, Sinha MP. Effects of leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera on regulation of hypothyroidism and lipid profile. The Bioscan 2013;8(2):665–669.
  43. Saxena V, Dharamveer, Gupta R, et al. Ficus carica leaf extract in regulation of thyroidism using ELISA technique. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5(2):44–48.
  44. Ranajan M, Ramteke R, Thakar AB. Review on ayurvedic management of hypothyroidism with critical analysis. Int J Ayurv Pharm Res 2015;3(9):83–88.
  45. Sharma T, Malvika, Gupta M, et al. Review on Ayurvedic drugs acting on hypothyroidism. Int Ayurv Med J 2015;3(8):2572–2579.
  46. Ogunlesi M, Okiei W, Azeez L, et al. Vitamin C contents of tropical vegetables and foods determined by voltammetric and titrimetric methods and their relevance to the medicinal uses of the plants. Int J Electrochem Sci 2010;5:105–115.
  47. Jubiz W, Ramirez M. Effect of vitamin C on the absorption of Levothyroxine in patients with hypothyroidism and gastritis, The. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2014;99(6):E1031–E1034. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2013-4360.
  48. Franco JS, Amaya-Amaya J, Anaya JM. Thyroid disease and autoimmune diseases. In: Anaya JM, Shoenfeld Y, Rojas-Villarraga A, et al. Autoimmunity: From Bench to Bedside [Internet], ch. 30, Bogota (Colombia): El Rosario University Press; 2013.
PDF Share